mandag, januar 30, 2006

Kollektiv psykose

Store dele af den arabiske verden er gået i selvsving over affæren med JP og Muhammed tegningerne (somjeg tidligere kort har omtalt her). Arla-ansatte er blevet udsat for fysiske angreb, Dannebrog afbrændes offentligt i Gaza-striben, danskere og Danmark udsættes for trusler om terror fra terroristorganisationer og danske virksomheder udsættes for omfattende boykot. Samtidig harcelerer arabiske stater, som Saudi-Arabien, Libyen, og Kuwait over den danske regerings manglende undskyldning, og de to førstnævnte lande har tilbagekaldt deres ambassadører. Der er endog tale om en FN-resolution med Danmark.

Kynismen hos disse mellemøstlige styrer, der aktivt udnytter JP sagen til at indsmigre sig hos de fundamentalister der truer deres magtbase, overgås kun af de samme staters hykleri.

Det amerikanske Udenrigsministerium udgiver hvert år ”Country reports on Human Rights Practices” og ”Country reports on Religious Freedom”, for hvert eneste af klodens lande (undtagen USA).

Af førstnævnte rapport vedrørende Saudi-Arabien fremgår det bl.a:

(Det skal for en god ordens skyld nævnes, at jeg har udeladt passager der tyder på, at der i det små er sket forbedringer i Saudi-Arabien, som også kan aflæses i Freedom House’s 2006 Global Survey)


The Government enforced most social and Islamic religious norms, the
Government's interpretations of which are matters of law (see Section 5). Women
may not marry noncitizens without government permission; men must obtain
government permission to marry noncitizen women outside the six states of the
Gulf Cooperation Council. In accordance with Shari'a, women are prohibited from
marrying non-Muslims; men may marry Christians and Jews, as well as Muslims.
Tradition and culture, not law, restrict marriages between Sunni and Shi'a
citizens, and the Government does not refuse marriage licenses between Sunni and
Shi'a couples

The Government owned and operated most domestic
television and radio companies. Government censors removed any reference to
politics, religions other than Islam, pork or pigs, alcohol, and sex from
foreign programs and songs. There were several million satellite-receiving
dishes in the country, which provided citizens with foreign television
programming.

Abuses of Freedom of Religion
During the period
covered by this report, the Government continued to commit abuses of religious
freedom. However, reports of abuses often are difficult or impossible to
corroborate. Fear and consequent secrecy surrounding any non-Muslim religious
activity contribute to reluctance to disclose any information that might harm
persons under government investigation. Moreover, information regarding
government practices is incomplete because judicial proceedings generally are
closed to the public, although the 2002 Criminal Procedural Law allows some
court proceedings to be open to the public.
Magic was widely believed in and
sometimes practiced; however, under the Government's interpretation of Shari'a,
the practice of magic was regarded as the worst form of polytheism, an offense
for which no repentance was accepted, and which was punishable by death. There
were an unknown number of detainees held in prison on the charge of "sorcery" or
the practice of "black magic" or "witchcraft." The press reported several cases
in which police arrested persons accused of sorcery, including a case in
September in which three African women were arrested in Jeddah. There were
reports of Shi'a Ismailis (Seveners) in Najran charged with practicing magic;
however, the Shi'a Ismailis maintained that their practice adheres to the
Seveners interpretation of Islam. There was no information available on prison
time or punishment.

There were reports that Christians were
detained for practicing their religion. During the year, there were scattered
raids, arrests, and detentions of Christians throughout the country, although
fewer than in the past. In February, the Government deported a resident
Christian after he provided an Arabic Bible to a citizen. In November, the
Government deported an Indian Christian arrested in April. There were credible
reports that Mutawwa'in arrested him for religious reasons after a dispute with
his employer. According to other reports, the Mutawwa'in beat him on the day of
the arrest and confiscated his personal property, including two Bibles, compact
disks, a personal computer, and religious videos.
Proselytizing by
non-Muslims, including the distribution of non-Muslim religious materials such
as Bibles, was illegal. Muslims or non-Muslims wearing religious symbols of any
kind in public risked confrontation with the Mutawwa'in.

Af sidstnævnte rapport fremgår det bl.a., at:

Freedom of religion does not exist. It is not recognized or protected under
the country's laws, and basic religious freedoms are denied to all but those who
adhere to the state-sanctioned version of Sunni Islam. Citizens are denied the
freedom to choose or change their religion, and noncitizens practice their
beliefs under severe restrictions. Islam is the official religion, and all
citizens must be Muslims. The Government limits the practice of all but the
officially sanctioned version of Islam and prohibits the public practice of
other religions. During the period covered by this report, the Government
publicly restated its policy that non-Muslims are free to practice their
religions at home and in private. While the Government does not always respect
this right in practice, many non-Muslims engage in private worship without
harassment

Hindus are considered polytheists by Islamic law, which
is used as a justification for greater discrimination in calculating accidental
death or injury compensation. According to the country's "Hanbali"
interpretation of Shari'a, once fault is determined by a court, a Muslim male
receives 100 percent of the amount of compensation determined, a male Jew or
Christian receives 50 percent, and all others (including Hindus and Sikhs)
receive 1/16 of the amount a male Muslim receives.

Under Shari'a,
conversion by a Muslim to another religion is considered apostasy, a crime
punishable by death if the accused does not recant. There were no executions for
apostasy during the period covered by this report, and there have been no
reports of such executions for several years. During the period covered by this
report, a schoolteacher was tried for apostasy, and eventually convicted in
March of blasphemy; the person was given a prison sentence of 3 years and 300
lashes. The trial received substantial press coverage.
The Government
prohibits public non-Muslim religious activities. Non-Muslim worshippers risk
arrest, imprisonment, lashing, deportation, and sometimes torture for engaging
in religious activity that attracts official attention. The Government has
stated publicly, including before the U.N. Commission on Human Rights in Geneva,
that its policy is to allow non-Muslim foreigners to worship privately. However,
the Government does not provide explicit guidelines--such as the number of
persons permitted to attend and acceptable locations--for determining what
constitutes private worship, which makes distinctions between public and private
worship unclear. This lack of clarity and instances of inconsistent enforcement
led many non-Muslims to worship in fear of harassment and in such a way as to
avoid discovery. The Government usually deported those detained for visible
non-Muslim worship after sometimes lengthy periods of arrest during
investigation. In some cases, they also were sentenced to receive lashes prior
to deportation.

The Government officially does not permit non-Muslim clergy to enter
the country to conduct religious services, although some come under other
auspices, and the Government generally has allowed their performance of discreet
religious functions. Such restrictions make it very difficult for most
non-Muslims to maintain contact with clergymen and attend services. Catholics
and Orthodox Christians, who require a priest on a regular basis to receive the
sacraments required by their faith, particularly are affected.

Under the provisions of Shari'a law as practiced in the country, judges
may discount the testimony of nonpracticing Muslims or of individuals who do not
adhere to the official interpretation of Islam. Legal sources report that
testimony by Shi'a is often ignored in courts of law or is deemed to have less
weight than testimony by Sunnis.
Customs officials routinely open mail and
shipments to search for contraband, including Sunni printed material deemed
incompatible with the Salafi tradition of Islam, Shi'a religious materials, and
non-Muslim materials, such as Bibles and religious videotapes. Such materials
are subject to confiscation, although rules appear to be applied arbitrarily.
Sunni Islamic religious education is mandatory in public schools at all
levels. Regardless of which Islamic tradition their families adhere to, all
public school children receive religious instruction that conforms to the Salafi
tradition of Islam. Non-Muslim students in private schools are not required to
study Islam. Private religious schools are not permitted for non-Muslims or for
Muslims adhering to non-Salafi traditions of Islam. Shi'a are banned from
teaching religion in schools.


Tegningerne af Muhammed, som vel at mærke blev bragt i en privatejet avis, er naturligvis på ingen måde sammenlignelig med den behandling den saudiske stat systematisk udsætter religiøse ”afvigere” for. En lang række af verdens stater fra Europa over Asien til Afrika kunne (og burde) med rette rejse en sønderlemmende kritik af Saudi-Arabiens totalitære religiøse undertrykkelse af deres statsborgere bosiddende i kongedømmet. Hvordan Saudi-Arabien med ovenstående fakta på bordet overhovedet tør stikke hovedet frem er en gåde.

Midt i denne deprimerende tid, er der dog tegn på, at den selvstændige tankevirksomhed har overlevet blandt visse mennesker i Mellemøsten, som visse af disse øjenvidneberetninger fra Danskere i området vidner om. Endvidere er det vel positivt, at den kollektive psykose (indtil videre) ikke har spredt sig til den øvrige muslimske verden, herunder stater baseret på en demokratisk styreform som Tyrkiet, Indonesien og Senegal, hvilket sandsynligvis siger en hel del om, at en øget grad af politisk og borgerlig frihed medfører en øget grad af tolerance og frisind (og humor).

2 kommentarer:

Jon Herstad sagde ...

Ja, man kan undre sig over den generelle dobbeltmoral visse steder – jeg så ikke mange boykot aktioner, om end der var fordømmelser fra muslimske lande(http://english.people.com.cn/english/200103/05/eng20010305_64085.html), vendt mod ødelæggelserne af Buddhastatuerne i Bamiyan (http://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taleban#Buddha-statuerne_i_Bamiyan) fra muslimske lade....

Jacob Saaby Nielsen sagde ...

Og apropos at USA ikke udgiver betragtninger om sig selv, det kan ikke vare længe før de invaderer sig selv.

Hvis man følger det typiske mønster hvorefter de invaderer lande, så burde mange af kriterierne være opfyldt:

- (Ny)Religiøs leder
- Atommagt
- Kendt for at bruge magt
- Overvejende religiøse moralbegreber
- Kun delvist demokratisk
- Spørger ingen om lov
- Henretter fanger
- Torturerer fanger
- Har hemmelige fængsler

Det kan kun være et spørgsmål om tid før der står 100.000 amerikanske soldater på bredderne af USA's kyster ;)